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Antibiotic susceptibility chart

Antibiotic Susceptibility Chart (UW Medicine, 2015) Cleveland Clinic -Guidelines for Antimicrobial Usage, 2012-2013 *Examples of drugs with excellent bioavailability (>90%) eligible for IV to PO switch over* *Examples of drugs with good bioavailabilit THE BEST ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY CHART EVER (at least the best we could make) Created by James McCormack, BSc(Pharm), PharmD and Fawziah Lalji, BSc(Pharm), PharmD, FCSHP with assistance from Tim Lau Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC Gram Positive Cocci Anaerobes Streptococci Gram Negative Bacill ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY CHART Created by James McCormack, BSc(Pharm), Pharm D and Fawziah Lalji, BSc(Pharm), PharmD, FCSHP with help from Michael Legal and Tim Lau Faculty of PharmaceuGcal Sciences, University of BriGsh Columbia, Vancouver, BC Bacteria Gram PosiGve Cocci Gram NegaGve Bacilli Gram NegaGve Coccobacilli Anaerobes Atypical

PPT - Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion Testing skill based

Note: This is a brief description of some important concepts in the use of susceptibility data to guide therapy. This information is in no way intended to supersede clinical judgment, information provided in package inserts or textbooks, nor to replace a thorough review of the many fine books and information sources on antimicrobial use Antimicrobial Testing and Reporting Policies (Tables 2 7-28) In order to provide the most meaningful information, the laboratory is selective in re porting antimicrobial susceptibility results . Reporting guidelines are based on: 1. Identity of the organism 2. Body site of culture 3. Overall antibiogram of the organism 4 Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 29th ed. CLSI supplement M100. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute; 2019. If the table indicates that STIC for a. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the UCDVH diagnostic laboratory is now carried out using a VITEK machine. The advantages of this system compared to the disc diffusion method previously performed in the laboratory are: • The bacteria are tested against a much wider range of antimicrobial agents (previously the standard number tested. Sanford Guide Like Antibiotic Tables. Figure out which antibiotics cover which bugs with these tables! Antibiotics: Antibiotics1-Chart showing which antibiotics cover which bacteria.Penicillins, Amino-penicillins, anti-staphylococcal pencillins, anti-pseudomonal, carbapenems, and fluoroquinilones

Historically, in vitro susceptibility testing was routinely performed by disk diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. The size of the growth-free zone determined whether the bacterium was considered to be susceptible, resistant, or intermediate to a particular antibiotic Susceptibility testing is an . in vitro . phenomenon and does not necessarily reflect or predict . in vivo . efficacy. Susceptibility testing is subject to great variability depending on pathogen tested, media used, conditions of incubation, and method of accessing bacterial growth BURKE A CUNHA. The goal of antimicrobial susceptibility testing is to predict the in vivo success or failure of antibiotic therapy. Tests are performed in vitro, and measure the growth response of an isolated organism to a particular drug or drugs. The tests are performed under standardized conditions so that the results are reproducible Many antibiotics can be used in different doses . The intermediate category was devised in order to take this fact into account, among other reasons. Infectious organisms whose susceptibility to a particular drug has been rated as intermediate should, therefore, be treated with a high dose of this drug Table 4 is a guide through the maze of testing and reporting the susceptibility of Gram negative aerobic species to β-lactam antibiotics. The production of one or more β-lactamases is an important and common mechanism of resistance in these species but, for several reasons, resistance may be difficult or impossible to demonstrate by the usual.

Use of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Data to Guide Therapy

  1. ation of antibiotic susceptibility of a pathogen is important in selecting the most appropriate one for treating a disease. There are several different procedures used by clinical microbiologists to deter
  2. antibiotics on it, measure the zones of inhibition of all the other antibiotics, then return the agar plates to the 37°C incubator. After an additional 6-8 hours of incubation, measure the zones of inhibition surrounding the oxacillin and/or vancomycin disks. 10) Use the antibiotic susceptibility chart provided available through the following UR
  3. SIDP - Antimicrobial Stewardship Certificate Program Understanding the Hospital Antibiogram 6 1515 Scope of M39-A Recommendations set forth in the guideline are intended to be used by: Clinical microbiologists, physicians, pharmacists, epidemiologists and infection control personnel to analyze and present antimicrobial susceptibility test dat

Hospital proposed a single disk method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (6). The lack of standardization for the determination of bacterial susceptibility continued to be a problem throughout the early 1960s. Kirby and his colleague, A. W. Bauer, extensively reviewed the susceptibility testing literature. They consolidated and updated. Semi-automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing is performed using the Microscan system, which is based on broth microdilution. This system allows the laboratory to rapidly perform identification and susceptibility testing on most common pathogens (e.g. Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococci, Enterococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The. The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and simultaneous resistance to selected antibiotics were determined by disk diffusion method according to the CLSI guidelines. All data analysis was performed using Python packages Scipy and Stats models Susceptibility is a term used when microbe such as bacteria and fungi are unable to grow in the presence of one or more antimicrobial drugs. Susceptibility testing is performed on bacteria or fungi causing an individual's infection after they have been recovered in a culture of the specimen. Testing is used to determine the potential effectiveness of specific antibiotics on the bacteria and/or.

Most antimicrobial choices are empiric and made before the identification and susceptibility pattern of the infecting pathogen is known. Empiric antimicrobial choice is guided by many considerations, but local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of commonly isolated bacteria are paramount among them. Sinc Susceptibility data for aerobic Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. This is the 2019 antibiotic susceptibility data for aerobic Gram positive and Gram negative organisms, isolated from clinical specimens sent to the Microbiology department of LabPLUS Antibiotic susceptibility testing, or AST, is a widely-used method of evaluating antibiotic resistance and determining patient treatment plans in clinical settings. There are a number of different methods of AST such as agar dilution, broth dilution and disc diffusion assays. The disc diffusion or 'Kirby-Bauer' method involves spreading. Interpretation Chart for Kirby-Bauer Method of Antimicrobial Sensitivity Testing Antibiotic Code Potency Zone of Inhibition (mm) Resistant Intermediate Sensitive Ciprofloxacin CIP-5 5 μg ≤ 15 16-20 ≥ 21 Erythromycin E-15 15 μg ≤ 13 14-22 ≥ 23 Gentamicin GM-10 10 μg ≤ 12 13-14 ≥ 15 Nalidixic Acid NA-30 30 μg ≤ 13 14-18 ≥ 19. Antibiotic Sensitivity Zone Of Inhibition Chart. Zone interpretive chart for measure the zones of inhibition for zone diameter interpretive standards kirby bauer test for antibiotic kirby bauer antibiotic. Isolation Identification And Determination Of Antibiotic Susceptibility Vibrio Parahaemolyticus From Shrimp At Khulna Region Desh Scialert.

importance of antimicrobial susceptibility test results demands that these tests be performed under optimal conditions and that laboratories have the capability to provide results for the newest antimicrobial agents. The tables presented in M100 represent the most current information for drug selection, interpretation, and quality control using. antibiotic sensitivity testing. there are various methods which can be employed for this purpose OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter, you will be able to : zdescribe various terminologies related to Antibiotic susceptibility testing zescribe principle for Antibiotic susceptibility testing S Breakpoints Table 1. Interpretive Categories Used for Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella and E. coli 1 Antimicrobial Class Antimicrobial Agen

Antibacterial Susceptibility Test Interpretive Criteria FD

Abstract. A survey was conducted in 1999, first to establish the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the UK and secondly to test whether the use of the standardized British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) disc testing method improved the accuracy of routine susceptibility testing for this organism The aim of this study was to analyze the antibiotics susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. isolated from urine of children with urinary tract infection (UTI), hospitalized in the Upper Silesian Health Center of Child and Mother or treated ambulatory. Susceptibility of the 130 strains of E. faecalis and 41 E. faecium to: penicillin, tetracycline. d) Antimicrobial susceptibility testing Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolates was performed using disk diffusion method on Muller-Hinton agar plates as per the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory standards (15). Single colony was selected and emulsified in 3ml sterile normal saline solution in a sterile test tube

Sanford Antibiotic Guide Table

  1. The research team analyzed 202 antibiograms — tables of antibiotic resistance — from Wisconsin hospitals collected between 2009 and 2015, which documented the susceptibility of 200,000 strains of the pathogenic bacterium Escherichia coli to seven classes or combinations of drugs. Plotted on a map of the state, the data created discrete points that then had to be stitched together to.
  2. Antimicrobial resistance refers to microbes' natural ability to evolve genetically to counter the drugs. Some of this is inevitable, but over-prescription and improper use of antimicrobials plays a big role. Up to half of antibiotic use is unnecessary or inappropriate
  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing - anaerobes. Reference Bacteriology Requisition. Anaerobic susceptibility test are performed on isolates from sterile sites. Pure viable subculture of 24 - 48 hours growth of organism on appropriate pre-reduced medium submitted in an anaerobic transport kit or anaerobic swab 2,3. N/A
  4. e the susceptibility profile of C. acnes, isolated from patients with acne, to different prescribed antibiotics and compare our findings with global data
  5. The selection of an appropriate antimicrobial is a challenging task for clinicians. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method is one of the most widely practiced antimicrobial susceptibility tests (AST). It is affected by many factors among which are the media used. Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) is the standard medium recommended in guidelines. However, these guidelines are not strictly adhered to in.
  6. Interactive Antibiogram. Step 1. Select Antibiogram. 2010 Sanford Guide 2011 Palo Alto VA (ED) 2011 Stanford (SUH) 2012 Stanford (SUH) 2015 Stanford (SUH) 2016 Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (LCPH) 2016 Palo Alto VA (Acute Med/Surg) 2016 Palo Alto VA (All Units) 2016 Palo Alto VA (ER) 2016 Palo Alto VA (ICU/IICU) 2016 Palo Alto VA (Long.

Song Y, Liu C, Finegold SM. Development of a flow chart for identification of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci in the clinical laboratory. J Clin Microbiol. 2007; 45:512-6. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2013. Methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria; approved standard. 6 th Ed. CLSI document M11-A6 antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests, 9th ed. CLSI, Wayne, Pa. 7. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2008. M100-S18 (M2). Disk Diffusion Supplemental Tables, CLSI, Wayne Pa. 8. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2004. Approved guideline M44-A. Method for antifungal disk diffusion susceptibility testing of yeasts, CLSI. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the Introduction and Categories of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test. Introduction to Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test: One of the prime duty of clinical microbiology laboratory is to undertake antimicrobial suscepti­bility test(s) if an isolated bacteria is found to be pathogenic and whose antimicrobial susceptibility pattern cannot be.

For some organism/antimicrobial agent combinations, the absence or rare occurrence of resistant strains precludes defin-ing any results categories other than Susceptible. For strains yielding results suggestive of a nonsusceptible category, organism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test results should be confirmed Historically, most in vitro susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. The size of the growth-free zone determined whether the bacterium was considered to be susceptible, resistant or intermediate to a particular antibiotic Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) is essential to adapt the patient's antibiotic treatment and fight antibiotic resistance. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) is a measure of the sensitivity of microbes to antibiotics or antifungals. Organisms are tested for growth in different concentrations of antibiotics Antibiotic susceptibility testing is commonly used to select appropriate antimicrobial therapy or deescalate to a narrower spectrum agent. Because not every antibiotic is tested, clinicians must infer certain types of antibiotic susceptibility based on bacterial patterns of resistance and sensitivities of other antibiotics Antibiotic Cross Sensitivity Chart Klzzjmy8g7lg. Figure 1 From Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns Of Methicillin. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing For Polymyxins Challenges. Genome Wide Analysis Captures The Determinants Of The Antibiotic. Full Text The Bacterial Profile And Antibiotic Susceptibility

Antibiotic Resistance/Susceptibilit

The three Lactobacillus strains had similar antibiotic susceptibility profiles to those of Lactobacillus plantarum strain HN045 and two commercial probiotic Lactobacillus strains, GG and LA-1. The B. lactis strain HN019 had a similar profile to three commercial probiotic B. lactis strains (Bb12, HN049 and HN098). All 10 strains were sensitive. automated identification and susceptibility testing system. The BD Phoenix ™ automated identification and susceptibility testing system provides rapid, accurate and reliable detection of known and emerging antimicrobial resistance. It also enables workflow efficiency by utilizing automated nephelometry, which results in a standardized isolate. This video lesson demonstrates how to interpret the results of the Bauer-Kirby method of antibiotic susceptibility testing by measuring the diameter of any z..

Susceptible, Intermediate, and Resistant - The Intensity

  1. CLSI has a longstanding globally trusted reputation for its diligent development of Microbiology and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST) standards and guidelines on test methods and QC procedures. Additionally, CLSI annually creates and revises AST breakpoints to meet global public health challenges related to antimicrobial resistance
  2. Component Test Code*. Component Chart Name. LOINC. 0060708. Susceptibility, Enterococcus. 29576-6. * Component test codes cannot be used to order tests. The information provided here is not sufficient for interface builds; for a complete test mix, please click the sidebar link to access the Interface Map
  3. In this video, we discuss the theory of the Kirby-Bauer Method for for qualifying antibiotic susceptibility. We also work through some examples
  4. able: as interpreted using CLSI 2017 breakpoints
  5. A pure culture is used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing because a pure culture will give a more accurate measurement of how far the antibiotic interrupted the susceptibility of the microbes. If the culture is not pure, there are high chances that it will give a false and incorrect reading

11. Tables The CDS Antibiotic Susceptibility Tes

  1. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns for Enterobacter spp. vary among facilities and among species, making careful monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns critical. Cronobacter spp. and E. gergoviae may be susceptible to ampicillin, cefazolin, and other narrow-spectrum cephalosporins; however, E. cloacae, E. aerogenes, and several.
  2. g
  3. Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing.. Theory . Procedure . Self Evaluation . Animation . Assignment . Reference . Feedback . Sign in to view the content . Only an authenticated user can view this page. Please if you have an account or else Sign-Up for free
  4. Antimicrobial Susceptibility - Streptococcus pneumoniae Feedback I want to provide feedback regarding - Select - Missing or Incorrect Test Information Test Research Assistance Other Test Content Questions Pricing and Availability General Usability of Test Directory Look and Feel of Test Directory Request a New Feature in Test Director
Antibiotics - drug classes and mechanisms | almostadoctor

Otto-Karg I, Jandl S, Müller T, Stirzel B, Frosch M, Hebestreit H, and Abele-Horn M. 2009. Validation of Vitek 2 nonfermenting Gram-negative cards and Vitek 2 version 4.02 software for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of nonfermenting gram-negative rods from patients with cystic fibrosis. J Clin Microbiol47:3283-3288 • Table 9 has some useful pharmacologic features of antibiotics such as the half-life, peak serum concentrations and CSF penetration • Refer to hospital specific antimicrobial susceptibility data for the most current, local resistant patterns Organism susceptibility to antibacterials: penicillins The following table provides a general guide to clinical antimicrobial susceptibilities. The table is intended to assist empirical selection of antimicrobials in the absence of laboratory confirmation of susceptibility; it is not a substitute for management advic General Bacterial Antibiogram - Antibiotics and Spectrum of Coverage Make sure you consult your local antibiogram! VRE - MRSA - GRAM POSITIVES - GRAM NEGATIVES. A review of the comparative in-vitro activities of 12 antimicrobial agents, with a focus on five new respiratory quinolones'. J Antimicrob Chemother 1999, 43 Suppl B:1-11. 10382869; CLSI M27-S4. Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts; Third informational supplement. 2012

HARDYDISK™ ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY TEST (AST) only. INTENDED USE . HardyDisk™ AST Disks are used for semi-quantitative . in vitro. susceptibility testing by the agar diffusion test procedure (Kirby-Bauer) of rapidly growing and certain fastidious bacterial pathogens. Standardized methods for agar diffusion testing have bee Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST) Resources. Select. Use of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Data to Guide Therapy; Susceptibility Results of Gram-Negative Bacterial Isolates; Susceptibility Results of Gram-Positive Bacterial Isolates; Antibiotic Panels for Susceptibility Testing: Dogs, Cats, and Other Small Animal It is used to determine antifungal susceptibility (MIC) of rapidly growing yeasts including Candida species from sterile sites including blood, CSF, pleural fluid, etc. Mould isolates may be tested for antimicrobial susceptibility in extreme conditions only, and are sent to the San Antonio Fungal Testing reference laboratory for evaluation when.

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing - Microbiology

ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY - TESTING NEWLY RECOGNIZED KLEBSIELLA SPECIES AND ASSOCIATED ANTIBIOGRAMS. Sample ES-02 (2017) was a simulated urinary tract culture for organism identification and susceptibility testing using laboratories' routinely applied methods. 1-6. The patient was a hospitalized 38-year-ol To improve patient care outcomes, you need faster, more reliable antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) devices. Whether you prefer manual or automated solutions, you'll find the right fit for your specific susceptibility testing needs and volume requirements with the Thermo Scientific™ Sensititre™ ID/AST System Lab Module 11 - Kirby-Bauer Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Lab Report Name: Oleksandr Volokh After reviewing the Lab Module 11 - Kirby-Bauer Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Introduction and Background document and the supplemental lab videos, complete the lab report below Consider an antibiotic, but only after taking into account severity of symptoms (particularly sputum colour changes and increases in volume or thickness), need for hospitalisation, previous exacerbations, hospitalisations and risk of , previous sputum culture and susceptibility results, and risk of resistance with repeated courses 5. Sample form for recording antimicrobial susceptibility test results 15 for Haemophilus influenzae 6. The antimicrobial susceptibility disk diffusion test: disk placement 18 and measurement of inhibition zone diameters 7. Proper placement of Etest® strips on dry, inoculated plates 22 8. Guidance for reading Etest® results 23 9

Antibiotic chart - Straight Healthcar

Optochin Sensitivity Test: Principle, Procedure, expected

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing - StatPearls - NCBI

Reference Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST) Data

  1. ed by evaluating the growth pattern of microorganisms in the presence of an antibiotic
  2. e the sensitivity of microorganisms to specific antimicrobial drugs; greater drug efficacy yields larger microbe-free zones surrounding drug-containing disks after overnight growth on solid media.; zone of inhibition: This is an area of media where bacteria are unable to grow, due to presence of a drug that impedes their.
  3. Establishment of national laboratory-based surveillance of antimicrobial resistance Contents 1. Introduction 1 2. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance 3 3. Establishing a national surveillance system 5 4. Selection of organisms for surveillance 8 5. Selection of antimicrobial agents 13 6. Protocols for antimicrobial susceptibility testing 17 7
  4. Antibiotic resistance is a global issue recognized by the CDC as a top public health threat. This guide helps to answer common questions about resistance to these important medications. Includes a list of antibiotic resistant bacteria and possible treatment options
  5. Predictive models of antibiotic susceptibility have the capacity to simultaneously increase the likelihood of adequate empiric coverage for patients and decrease the overuse of broad-spectrum treatments. In the empiric treatment of bacteraemia, a number of important windows of time exist during which treatment can be initiated and then modified.
Effect of Stress-Adaptation on Antibiotic Sensitivity

Bauer-Kirby Disk Diffusion. This is one of the more commonly used methods of antimicrobial susceptibility testing. In this test, small filter paper disks (6 mm) impregnated with a standard amount of antibiotic are placed onto an agar plate to which bacteria have been swabbed susceptibility information is available, this information should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. Reference ID: 436530 Modified Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Method. Modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion test method is a reference method that could be used as a routine technique to test the susceptibility of a bacterial isolate in a clinical laboratory. The disc diffusion method was originally described in 1966, and is well standardized and has been widely evaluated Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. This document includes updated tables for the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute antimicrobial susceptibility testing standards M02-A12, M07-A10, and M11-A8. An informational supplement for global application developed through the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institut

Limitations of antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Susceptibility tests measure antimicrobial activity against bacteria under laboratory conditions (in vitro activity), not in the patient (in vivo activity). It cannot be assumed therefore, that an antimicrobial that kills or prevents an organism from growing in vitro will be a successful treatment Studies have implicated Staphylococcus aureus as the leading cause of septicemia in the Tamale metropolis of Ghana. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of S. aureus and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the environments of three hospitals in Ghana. A total of 120 swab samples were taken from door handles, stair railings and other points. antibiotic susceptibility testing is often essential in order to determine which antibiotics to use against a specific strain of bacterium. Significant: culture and susceptibility test. is the growth of a known pathogen in pure culture and its exposure to known antibiotics of different concentration to determine which drug will kill or inhibit. Susceptibility is a term used when microbe such as bacteria and fungi are unable to grow in the presence of one or more antimicrobial drugs. Susceptibility testing is performed on bacteria or fungi causing an individual's infection after they have been recovered in a culture of the specimen Testing the effectiveness of antimicrobial drugs against specific organisms is important in identifying their spectrum of activity and the therapeutic dosage.This type of test, generally described as antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), is commonly performed in a clinical laboratory.In this section, we will discuss common methods of testing the effectiveness of antimicrobials

Antimicrobial Susceptibility - Virtual Interactive

Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing

Assessment of Susceptibility to Five Common Antibiotics

ResistanceMap - Antibiotic Resistance. CDDEP relies on grants and the generosity of donors to support data collection and ensure that ResistanceMap stays up-to-date with the latest antimicrobial use and resistance data. Please help us ensure the continued operation of ResistanceMap through a donation today >> Instructions. Objective: determine the susceptibility of an organism to various antibiotics using the basic Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method (the actual test has exact specifications which must be followed; these requirements are beyond the capability of work in this lab) Culture and Sensitivity - C & S. Culture: You send a specimen to the lab and the labs job is to tell you what the organism is, a definitive ID based on gram stain, morphology and biochemical profile. Susceptibility: The lab also gives you the info on the antibiotic susceptibilities to know how to treat it

Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing Lab Tests Onlin

The antibiotic susceptibility of MRSA, shown in Table 5, was assessed from wound culture and susceptibility results when they were available in the patient charts (n = 21) Susceptibility tests for Neisseria Gonorrhoeae. 1. agar dilution tests may be used with a test medium containing necessary nutrients and incubated in CO2. 2. a modified disc diffusion test with following modifications: - inoculum via direct method. - GC agar base enriched to allow growth of N. gonorrhoeae

Synergy Testing by Checkerboard Assay - Emery PharmaOptochin sensitive | Susceptibility to the antibiotic
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