Thyroid nodule ultrasound images

Image Collection. The images used in our research work were from the following two databases: Database 1 is a publicly available thyroid ultrasound image database proposed by Pedraza et al. [], consisting of 428 thyroid ultrasound images with the size 560 × 360, of which 357 cases are labelled as positive (with the TI-RADS scores 3, 4a, 4b or 5), while 71 cases are labelled as negative (with. With many thyroid nodules being incidentally detected, it is important to identify as many malignant nodules as possible while excluding those that are highly likely to be benign from fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies or surgeries. This paper presents a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classifying thyroid nodules in ultrasound images

Thyroid Nodule Classification in Ultrasound Images by Fine

  1. Sonography detected this colloid nodule in the upper half of the left lobe of the thyroid. Ultrasound images show a densely calcific colloid nodule of 2 x 1 cms. in the left lobe thyroid. Color Doppler ultrasound shows typical twinkling artefacts in this calcific colloid nodule of the thyroid. FNAC was advised and would show a classic gritty.
  2. A thyroid nodule is a discrete lesion within the normal thyroid. Such nodules are a common occurrence in the general population and a frequent incidental finding on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Autopsy studies have reported incidental thyroid nodules in up to 50% of subjects
  3. With many thyroid nodules being incidentally detected, it is important to identify as many malignant nodules as possible while excluding those that are highly likely to be benign from fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies or surgeries. This paper presents a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classifying thyroid nodules in ultrasound images. We use deep learning approach to extract.
  4. The above image is an ultrasound of a typical thyroid nodule, except that this nodule is a bit bigger than usual. The two scans are identical, the one on the right is outlined to help you understand what you are looking at
  5. Nodule echogenicity. Images from ultrasound exams performed on different patients show (a) a hypoechoic nodule, (b) a hyperechoic nodule, (c) an isoechoic nodule, (d) a heterogeneous solid nodule with both hyperechoic and hypoechoic solid portions, and (e) a mixed cystic and solid nodule in which the solid component is isoechoic to the parenchyma.. The nodules depicted in (b) and (d) proved to.
  6. g more widespread in the United States . It is possible that many malignant nodules were prescreened and thereby removed from those.
  7. Document thyroid nodules that are less than 1cm if they look suspicious for thyroid cancer (i.e very hypoechoic, irregular margins, internal calcifications or taller than wide shape). For Pre-surgical Thyroidectomy patients, please also include a sweep of the Rt and Lt posterior neck Level 5. Thyroid Images

The accurate localization of nodules in ultrasound images can convey crucial information to support a reliable diagnosis. However, this is usually challenging due to low contrast and image artifacts, especially in thyroid ultrasound images where nodules are relatively small in most cases. To address these problems, in this paper, we propose a joint-training convolutional neural network (CNN. Ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality for assessment of thyroid nodules found on clinical examination or incidentally on another imaging modality. This article is an overview of ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules, which are used to determine the need for biopsy with fine needle aspiration.Specific management guidelines from various professional societies are covered in. However, there are several difficulties in analyzing thyroid ultrasound images, which lead to lower performance in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules (Li et al., 2018).First, ultrasound images are easily influenced by speckle noise and echo perturbations, which may have confounding effects on the diagnosis logical classification of thyroid nodules. With a structured approach for image acquisition, feature extraction, classification, training, and prediction using machine learning (super-vised and unsupervised), it is possible to build and train a model that would predict whether thyroid nodules are malignant or benign [13] Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Ultrasound Images. The orange arrows point to the thyroid gland. Although the patient was referred to us with a diagnosis of concerning thyroid nodules, her ultrasound revealed diffuse thyroiditis without evidence of any nodules. Therefore the prior nodules found on ultrasound were in fact pseudo nodules

  1. Ultrasound images of the thyroid gland tend to have specific characteristics that can convey information about the health of the thyroid and the presence of disease. If a nodule is present within the thyroid gland, it will generally be visible on ultrasound imaging, and its appearance will be evaluated in order to gain clinical information.
  2. Indeed, DL methods and techniques in ultrasound thyroid nodule images will further develop to increase the diagnostic accuracy of the risk of malignancy in patients, and decrease the risk of late-diagnosis of them. CRediT authorship contribution statement. Yasaman Sharifi: Methodology, Validation, Investigation, Writing - original draft
  3. Prevalence of thyroid nodules in the US Ultrasound/autopsy Palpation Brander et al Head & Neck Rad. 1991 . You may palpate A but not B . Or this 1.5cm Or this Pseudo-nodule . What nodules are we missing? Ultrasound vs. Palpation Nodule Size (by US) N Missed (palpation) % <1cm 16 15 93.
  4. The superior resolution of ultrasound images has resulted in discovery of a large number of thyroid nodules that heretofore had been obscured . Since the late 1990s, several studies have been conducted to analyze the relation between specific sonographic features of thyroid nodules and malignancy [2, 10-16]

Ultrasound. This imaging technique uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of your thyroid gland. A thyroid ultrasound provides the best information about the shape and structure of nodules. If a thyroid nodule is producing thyroid hormones, overloading your thyroid gland's normal hormone production levels, your doctor may. ABBREVIATIONS & DEFINITIONS. Thyroid nodule: an abnormal growth of thyroid cells that forms a lump within the thyroid. While most thyroid nodules are non-cancerous (Benign), ~5% are cancerous. Thyroid Ultrasound: a common imaging test used to evaluate the structure of the thyroid gland. Ultrasound uses soundwaves to create a picture of the structure of the thyroid gland and accurately identify. Thyroid Nodule Classification in Ultrasound Images by Fine-Tuning Deep Convolutional Neural Network. J Digit Imaging 2017 ;30(4):477-486. Crossref , Medline , Google Schola

Through our experiments with a popular open dataset, namely the thyroid digital image database (TDID), we confirm the superiority of our method compared to the state-of-the-art methods. Keywords: artificial intelligence; deep learning; malignant thyroid nodule; ultrasound image; weighted binary cross-entropy loss In randomly selected individuals, thyroid nodules were detected by high-frequency ultrasound (US) in 19% to 68% of the cases, with more frequent occurrence in women and the elderly individuals. 3,4 When compared with benign nodules in the thyroid gland, malignancy occurs in approximately 5% of cases depending on age, gender, family history.

Ultrasound-Based Diagnostic Classification for Solid and

Ultrasound images of thyroid disease-2 - A Gallery of High

Ultrasonography of thyroid nodules: a pictorial revie

Dedicated thyroid ultrasound should include a full survey of cervical lymph nodes. Thyroid nodules are characterized by their location, size, composition, echogenicity, margins, orientation, calcifications, and vascularity. Benign features include predominantly cystic composition and an enlarged thyroid gland with multiple nodules Neck ultrasonography is the best, most sensitive and specific method of evaluating thyroid nodules, thyroid goiters, and neck lymph nodes.. Thyroid ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves that pass through the tissues to create images and can help the surgeon determine which nodules are worrisome, if there is evidence of thyroiditis (Hashimoto's or Graves disease), and if any surrounding. Secondly, the thyroid nodules have diverse appearance and unclear boundary, as shown in Fig. 1(c), the iso-echoic nodules are very similar to the background of ultrasound images. Thirdly, the size of the nodules varies greatly, some nodules are very small as shown in Fig. 1 (b) A thyroid ultrasound is a safe, painless procedure that uses sound waves to examine the thyroid gland. It can be used to help diagnose a wide range of medical conditions affecting the thyroid gland, including benign thyroid nodules and possible thyroid cancers. SerhiiBobyk/ iStock/Getty Images Plus/ Getty Images

A nodule >4 cm in diameter or partially cystic. Symptoms of compression, including dysphagia, dysphonia, hoarseness, dyspnea and cough. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of the thyroid nodule should be performed under ultrasound guidance in all patients with nodules of >1 cm or in patients with features on history, physical examination, or. An ultrasound may also be used to help guide a biopsy (if necessary) to ensure that you are getting into the right area (3). Perhaps the most common reason for a thyroid ultrasound is because of thyroid nodules (4). Thyroid nodules are tiny little masses that can grow on your thyroid gland which can cause significant concern for many patients Thyroid Nodule Segmentation. This repository contains code and models to segment thyroid nodules in ultrasound images. Dataset used: Open-CAS Ultrasound Dataset. Installation. The main code is written as a Python package named 'tnseg'. After cloning this repository to your machine, install with Sagittal US image of thyroid nodule Thyroid nodule (arrowheads) with micro-calcifications (arrow) Papillary thyroid carcinoma on FNA and surgery Threefold increase of cancer likelihood in case of microcalcifications Microcalcifications almost exclusively appear in hypoechoic nodules Frates MC et al. Ultrasound Quarterly 2006;22(4):231-238

The image of your thyroid and any nodules, even those you can't feel, will show up on a computer screen. An ultrasound may show your doctor if a lump is filled with fluid or if it's solid Thyroid Nodules Pictures. Check out these photos of Thyroid nodules to know how they look like. You may find these Thyroid nodules images quite useful to get an idea about the physical appearance of these lumps. Doctors often use an ultrasound to position the needle accurately. The process can be carried out in a doctor's office and takes. This 37 year old female presents with single nodule in the left lobe of the thyroid. Ultrasound of the mass in sagittal (a) and transverse view (b) reveals a complex mass with isoechoic and hypoechoic nodular components. The normal thyroid tissue is seen superiorly in image a and medically in image b

Thyroid Nodule Ultrasound: What is it, what does it tell

Ultrasound - Thyroid. Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the thyroid gland within the neck. It does not use ionizing radiation and is commonly used to evaluate lumps or nodules found during a routine physical or other imaging exam. This procedure requires little to no special preparation Ultrasound can help evaluate a thyroid nodule and determine the need for biopsy. A thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy can collect samples of cells from the nodule, which, under a microscope, can provide your doctor with more information about the behavior of the nodule

For the ultrasound images, we have identified an important while ignored problem that in current clinical practice of ultrasound images, such as the detection images of thyroid nodule, the clinician will mark the position of the nodule with marker and measure the size of the nodule in the meantime (usually called calibration marker) Jami Yontz. Ultrasound scans help evaluate thyroid cysts. Thyroid cysts, also known as thyroid nodules, are small sacs filled with fluid or blood that grow on the thyroid. These sacs can also be filled with solid matter, which is sometimes an indicator of thyroid cancer. The thyroid is an endocrine gland located at the bottom of a person's.

Ultrasound of Thyroid Nodules Radiology Ke

Sonographic Patterns of Benign Thyroid Nodules

  1. •A test that uses sound waves to provide images of the thyroid and adjacent structures in the neck • The primary purpose is to check for thyroid cancer • If a nodules is found, the next step is a fine needle aspiration biopsy to see if it is malignant • Involves ultrasound, interventional radiolog
  2. A thyroid ultrasound is in actuality a cervical or neck ultrasound which studies not only images of the thyroid but also its surrounding structures in the neck, importantly neck lymph nodes and sometimes neighboring parathyroid glands. Doppler ultrasound characterizes blood flow to the thyroid gland, nodules, and lymph nodes and is a routine.
  3. Introduction. Thyroid nodules are less common in the pediatric population than in the adult population, occurring in 1.0%-1.5% of children but up to 68% of adults at high-resolution ultrasonography (US) (1-5).The reported rate of malignancy of 22%-26% in pediatric thyroid nodules is considerably higher than the reported rate of 5%-15% in adults (6-10), and several studies suggest.

Thyroid / Head and Neck UW Ultrasoun


Nodule Localization in Thyroid Ultrasound Images with a

Blood flow: Color on your thyroid ultrasound means that color doppler was applied and blood flow was detected. It is generally normal unless there is too much co Read More. Send thanks to the doctor When light (laser) is irradiated on the patient's thyroid nodule, an ultrasound signal called a PA signal is generated from the thyroid gland and the nodule. By acquiring and processing this signal, PA images of both the gland and the nodule are collected Why are ultrasound (US) images of thyroid nodules suitable for deep learning (DL) analysis? DL is a part of artificial intelligence (AI) systems, which is designed to have human's way of thinking. DL has been applied in medical image analysis such as chest radiographs, retinal image, pathology, and US images, and showed comparable diagnostic.

Thyroid ultrasounds are becoming better and predicting whether a thyroid nodule is benign or is a cancer. Many thyroid ultrasound reports will now give each nodule a score and discuss the characteristics of the nodule that caused the score. Talk to your provider about the results of any thyroid ultrasound. Risk Thyroid ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to determine if a nodule is solid or a fluid-filled cyst. (The risk of cancer is higher in solid nodules.) (The risk of cancer is higher in solid nodules. Thyroid cancer has a good prognosis, a high survival rate, and a low recurrence rate, so early diagnosis and treatment are crucial. Recently, a joint research team in Korea has proposed a new non-invasive method to distinguish thyroid nodules from cancer by combining photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasound image technology with artificial intelligence Thyroid nodules are lumps or growths of the thyroid, usually made up of normal thyroid tissue or fluid. Thyroid nodules are frequently discovered on routine physical examination or unintentionally on imaging tests. By the age 45, up to half of normal people have thyroid nodules that can be seen on an ultrasound

Diagnosis of thyroid and breast nodules with benign or malignant tendency by ultrasound guidelines and CNN. (a) Fibroadenoma. The nodule was classified as BI-RADS 3, while the diagnosis of CNN was benign tendency (93.24%). (b) Invasive breast carcinoma 2 CMES, 2021 and classification of thyroid nodules in ultrasound images. Morifuji et al. [7] studied whether thyroid nodules are malignant; Acharya et al. [8] combined local binary pattern (LBP) and Gabor transform features for automatic classification of ultrasound thyroid nodules.On one hand, these studies demonstrated the effectiveness of histogram on thyroid tissue feature

Assessment of thyroid lesions (ultrasound) Radiology

Automatic diagnosis for thyroid nodules in ultrasound

  1. ing tech - niques
  2. thyroid cancer; thyroid; odule; ultrasound. Thyroid nodules are commonly noted in adults. The prevalence of palpable thyroid nodules is estimated to be 6.4% in women and 1.5% in men between 30 to 60 years of age, living in iodine-sufficient regions . Imaging techniques, particularly high resolution sonography of the neck, have been shown to.
  3. Echogenic foci associated with malignancy. 51-year-old female with thyroid nodule. Ultrasound image shows a 1.1 cm hypoechoic, solid nodule with large echogenic foci (> 1 mm) without shadowing (Type 3, arrow). Biopsy result was papillary carcinoma and was confirmed at surger

Zhao J, Zheng W, Zhang L, Tian H. Segmentation of ultrasound images of thyroid nodule for assisting fine needle aspiration cytology. Health Inf Sci Syst. 2013;1(5):1-15. Jalalian A, Mashohor SB, Mahmud HR, Saripan MIB, Ramli ARB, Karasfi B. Computer-aided detection/diagnosis of breast cancer in mammography and ultrasound: A review Usually a radiologist will review the measurements/images from the ultrasound and send a report to your doctor along with a recommendation for follow-up (biopsy of nodule, future ultrasounds, etc.). Lots of people have nodules and most (90-95%) of thyroid nodules are non-cancerous. Depending on the ultrasound reading, the doctor may recommend a.

Sonographic Differentiation of Partially Cystic Thyroid

Ultrasound Image Classification of Thyroid Nodules Using

The shape of the nodule - If your thyroid nodule is taller than it is wide (6) then that is a risk factor for thyroid cancer. The vascularity of the nodule - The presence of vascularity by Doppler ultrasound (7) is also suspicious for thyroid cancer Thyroid Ultrasound. Cysts may be colloid (hyperplastic or adenomatous), simple or hemorrhagic in nature. On sonography, cystic areas may contain either serous fluid or colloid; old hemorrhage and resultant echogenic fluid may also be noted. Punctuate highly echogenic foci with ring-down artifact (see below image from Ultrasound Clinics Apr 2009. 3.2. B-US Processing and Statistical Features. B-US image is gray scale image (Figure 1, bottom) which can display the position and shape of the thyroid nodule.The clinically acquired ultrasound thyroid images have low quality, which are mainly reflected in the problems of severe speckle noise, blurred nodule edges, discontinuous boundaries, and low contrast Ultrasound Assessment of Thyroid Nodules •Sonographically, a thyroid nodule can be described as a discrete lesion distinguishable from the adjacent normal thyroid parenchyma. •Thyroid nodules are palpable in 3-7% of the population •Ultrasound detectable nodules in the population is between 30

Thyroid nodules are common, perhaps existing in almost half the population, as determined using ultrasonography (US). Only 4-7% of thyroid nodules detected with US are palpable in the adult population in the United States, with women affected more frequently than men. Although the thyroid is the most common endocrine organ to undergo malignant degeneration, thyroid carcinoma accounts for only. Ultrasound imaging technology plays an important role to assist doctors in diagnosing thyroid nodules. The tissue structure around the thyroid is very complex, which makes it difficult to segment and extract the ultrasound image of thyroid nodules accurately. For address this problem, this paper proposes a model algorithm for thyroid nodule ultrasound image segmentation using ASPP fusion. Ultrasound imaging of thyroid gland provides the ability to acquire valuable information for medical diagnosis. This study presents a novel scheme for the analysis of longitudinal ultrasound images aiming at efficient and effective computer-aided detection of thyroid nodules Ultrasound uses sound waves to create images of parts of your body. You are not exposed to radiation during this test. This test can help determine if a thyroid nodule is solid or filled with fluid. (Solid nodules are more likely to be cancerous.) It can also be used to check the number and size of thyroid nodules as well as help determine if. Introduction. A thyroid nodule, by definition, is a discrete lesion within the thyroid gland, which is radiographically distinct from the surrounding thyroid parenchyma [].With the increased utilization of diagnostic imaging (ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) unrelated to the thyroid, the prevalence of thyroid incidentaloma has been significantly.

A hypoechoic thyroid nodule is a type of thyroid nodule that appears dark on an ultrasound scan and typically indicates a solid mass rather than a fluid-filled cyst. Thyroid nodules are common and. Then, using an external probe, ultrasound images of the thyroid gland are obtained. An ultrasound can reveal which thyroid nodules are larger than 1.0 to 1.5 centimeters, requiring further evaluation for cancer. In addition to size, other nodule characteristics that can be noted on a thyroid ultrasound include the following: Number of nodules Shen, X, Ouyang, X, Liu, T & Shen, D 2021, Cascaded Networks for Thyroid Nodule Diagnosis from Ultrasound Images. in N Shusharina, MP Heinrich & R Huang (eds), Segmentation, Classification, and Registration of Multi-modality Medical Imaging Data - MICCAI 2020 Challenges, ABCs 2020, L2R 2020, TN-SCUI 2020, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2020, Proceedings I thought I'd include the same image of my neck that I did yesterday, just so you can see where the nodule is sticking out, in comparison to the ultrasound. Hmmmin a few weeks, my neck won't look like this anymore! Edit: Here's the image of the 7mm nodule. Yeah, I knownot very impressivebut I promised I'd add it Ultrasound images of 120 cytology confirmed thyroid nodules (78 low-risk and 42 high-risk of malignancy) were manually segmented by a physician using a custom developed software in Cⴙⴙ. From each nodule, 40 textural features were automatically calculated and were used with the SVM algorithm in the design of the image analysis system

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis - Thyroid Cance

Thyroid nodules are common. Unfortunately, accurately classifying them as benign vs. potentially malignant is time consuming, repetitive, and very subjective. The process involves sifting through current and prior ultrasound images taken and interpreted by different people to decide whether a nodule has suspicious features or has changed over time Conventional ultrasound is one of the most frequently ordered exams to diagnose thyroid nodules. However, static images may not reflect the structures of the thyroid nodules and the procedure is highly operator dependent. Three dimensional ultrasound avoids these limitations by displaying the lesion features through reconstruction

Inspissated colloid in a thyroid nodule | Image

Thyroid Ultrasound ‣ THANC Guid

Objective: We aimed to propose a highly automatic and objective model named online transfer learning (OTL) for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules from ultrasound (US) images. Methods: The OTL mothed combined the strategy of transfer learning and online learning. Two datasets (1750 thyroid nodules with 1078 benign and 672 malignant nodules, and 3852 thyroid. Ultrasound - thyroid; Thyroid sonogram; Thyroid echogram; Thyroid nodule - ultrasound; Goiter - ultrasound. How the Test is Performed. Ultrasound is a painless method that uses sound waves to create images of the inside of the body. The test is often done in the ultrasound or radiology department. It also can be done in a clinic Medical image analysis using DL has been rapidly adopted across multiple medical fields. Neck ultrasound (US) is a gold standard diagnostic modality in thyroid nodules, and suitable for DL diagnosis because the characteristics of the thyroid nodules can be captured in one representative image Thyroid ultrasounds are becoming better and predicting whether a thyroid nodule is benign or is a cancer. Many thyroid ultrasound reports will now give each nodule a score and discuss the characteristics of the nodule that caused the score. Talk to your provider about the results of any thyroid ultrasound Heterogeneous thyroid nodules have distinct components and vague boundaries in ultrasound (US) images. It is difficult for radiologists and physicians to manually draw the complete shape of a nodule, or distinguish what kind of components a nodule has

Thyroid Cyst Treatment 101: How Simple Can it Be to Save

Deep learning on ultrasound images of thyroid nodules

During radiofrequency ablation of a thyroid nodule, an ultrasound is used to obtain an image inside the thyroid and neck in order to guide the placement of an electric probe. The probe generates high-frequency radio waves, which create heat. The focused temperature ablates the tissue and reduces the nodule's size Thyroid ultrasound is an effective way to evaluate thyroid abnormalities. The exam is especially useful in differentiating between solid and fluid-filled nodules. Nodules filled with fluid (cysts) are less likely to be cancerous. Thyroid ultrasound is recommended to: Identify the size and consistency of a thyroid nodule

Pattern Recognition of Benign Nodules at Ultrasound of the

A thyroid nodule is an abnormal growth of thyroid cells that forms a lump in the thyroid gland. Your thyroid gland is butterfly shaped gland located just below the Adam's apple in the lower neck. Its job is to make thyroid hormones, which regulate energy use, warmth and help the brain, heart, muscles and other organs function correctly Photo: Pixabay ScienceDaily.com A lump in the thyroid gland is called a thyroid nodule, and 5-10% of all thyroid nodules are diagnosed as thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer has a good prognosis, a high survival rate, and a low recurrence rate, so early diagnosis and treatment are crucial. Recently, a joint research team in Korea has proposed a new non-invasive method to distinguish thyroid nodules. Modern imaging techniques - such as ultrasound (US), computerized tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging - have revealed more thyroid nodules incidentally This means that nodules are being found during studies that were done for reasons other than examination of the thyroid per se. Up to 4% to 8% of adult women and 1% to 2% of adult men have thyroid nodules detectable by physical. Do they show up thyroid cancer? No. Although primary or secondary carcinomas of the thyroid almost invariably appear as nonfunctioning ('cold') areas on the radionuclide images, 4 most (>90%) 'cold' lesions are due to benign processes (eg. thyroiditis, cyst, adenoma). Nevertheless, if a 'cold nodule' is found on thyroid scan, further investigation, such as ultrasound and/or fine needle biopsy. In the case of the thyroid, certain internal ultrasound features of a nodule are clinically useful because they may correlate highly, but not perfectly, with histology, thereby enhancing a management decision. These methods also permit estimates of overall and regional blood flow to the thyroid. This topic review will discuss the basic.

Thyroid carcinoma - Radiology at St

Those with one or more breast nodules, age 18 or older, upcoming FNAB or surgery and signed informed consent.Those without adverse effects on the test or threatening other candidates, such as mental illness, pregnancy, poor ultrasound image quality, history of thyroid surgery or thyroid biopsy, simple cystic nodules, calcification, excessive mass or too small, the S-DetectTM system can not. Thyroid nodules have high prevalence in the general population. Only minorities of thyroid nodules are malignant; nevertheless, still biopsies are performed in differential diagnosis of malignant and benign thyroid nodules. Conventional ultrasound is widely used in diagnosis and characterization of thyroid nodules. There are several suspicious ultrasound features that predict thyroid cancer. Thyroid nodules are caused by an overgrowth of cells in the thyroid gland. These growths can be: Not cancer (benign), thyroid cancer (malignant), or very rarely, other cancers or infections. Fluid-filled (cysts) One nodule or a group of small nodules. Producing thyroid hormones (hot nodule) or not making thyroid hormones (cold nodule

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